The European Parliament passed a resolution on Wednesday declaring Russia a “sponsor of terrorism” because of its war in Ukraine.
“The deliberate attacks and atrocities committed by the Russian armed forces and their proxies against civilians in Ukraine, the destruction of civilian infrastructure and other serious violations of international and humanitarian law constitute acts of terrorism and constitute war crimes,” the European Parliament said.
A total of 494 members of the European Parliament (MEPS) voted in favour of the resolution, 58 were against and 44 abstained.
The largely symbolic move is unlikely to have any effect, as the European Union — unlike the United States — does not have the legal framework for naming countries. On the other side of the Atlantic, North Korea, Syria, Cuba and Iran are on the US list.
The EU created its terrorist list in 2001 following the 9/11 attacks in New York.
It includes individuals, groups and organizations and is reviewed at least every six months.
armed groups ISIL (ISIS) and al-Qaeda are among the groups currently on the list.
Which members voted against the resolution?
Russia is the first country to be declared a state sponsor of terrorism by the European Parliament.
Members did not vote unanimously, however, as a larger part of Parliament’s right-wing bloc was against Russia’s association with terrorism.
Twenty-six members of the far-right Identity and Democracy faction voted against naming Russia as a sponsor of terrorism.
Here’s a breakdown of votes by country, home country party, and members:
These French politicians, who voted against the resolution, are all members of the National Rally, or Rassemblement National, led by Marine Le Pen.
- Mathilde Androuet
- Jordan Bardella
- Aurélia Beigneux
- Dominique Bilde
- Annika Bruna
- Patricia Chagnon
- Marie Dauchy
- Jean-Paul Garraud
- Katharina Griset
- Jean-Francois Jalkh
- Frankreich, Jamet
- Virginie Joron
- Jean-Lin Lacapelle
- Gilles Lebreton
- Thierry Mariani
- Philippe Olivier
- Andre Rouge
The following German politicians who voted against the resolution all belong to the far-right Alternative for Germany or Alternative for Germany (AfD) party.
- Christine Anderson
- Gunnar Beck
- Nikolaus Fest
- Maximilian Krah
- Joachim Kuhs
- Guido Reil
- Bernhard Zimniok
Czech MPs who are members of the populist Freedom and Direct Democracy Party (Svoboda a přímá demokracie):
- Hynek Blasko
- Iwan David
A member of the centre-right European Conservatives and Reformists Group voted against the resolution:
- Emmanouil Fragkos, whose party in Greece is Greek Solution or Elliniki Lusi-Greek Solution
Twelve members of the left-liberal Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats voted against the resolution.
From Bulgaria — all with the left-liberal Socialist Party of Bulgaria:
- Ivo Hristov
- Zwetelina Penkowa
- Sergei Stanishev
- Petar Vitanow
- Elena Yoncheva
From Germany — everything with the Social Democratic Party of Germany or the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the party of Chancellor Olaf Scholz:
- Jochen Schuster
- Dietmar Köster
From Italy — these three politicians belong to Partito Democratico or the Democratic Party:
- Pietro Bartolo
- Andrea Cozzolino
- Massimiliano Smeriglio
- Monika Beňová (Directorate-Social Democracy or Directing — Slovakian Social Democracy)
- Robert Hajšel (Independent)
Ten members of the Left Group in the European Parliament voted against the resolution:
- Marc Botenga (Parti du Travail de Belgique or Workers Party of Belgium — a Marxist party)
- Niyazi Kizilyürek (Progressive Party of Working People — Left — New Forces)
From the Czech Republic:
- Kateřina Konečná (Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia)
From Germany (party DIE LINKE. or Die Linke Parti):
- Özlem Demirel
- Martin Schirdewan
From Portugal (Partido Comunista Português or Communist Party of Portugal — a Marxist-Leninist group)
- Sandra Pereira
- João Pimenta Lopes
From Ireland (Independents 4 Change):
- Clare Daly
- Mick Wallace
- Miguel Urbán Crespo (Anticapitalists)
Nine MPs, who do not belong to any political group, also voted against the resolution:
- Nicolas Bay (France) — Reconquest! , or Reconquest — a nationalist party)
- Francesca Donato (Italy — independent today, but formerly with the far-right Northern League or Northern League led by Matteo Salvini)
- Marcel De Graaff (The Netherlands — Forum voor Democratie or Forum for Democracy, a right-wing populist party)
- Lefteris Nikolaou-Alavanos (Greece — Communist Party of Greece)
- Kostas Papadakis (Greece — Communist Party of Greece)
- Miroslav Radačovský (Slovakia — Slovak PATRIOT, a right-wing party)
- Milan Uhrík (Slovakia — Hnutie Republika or Republic — a far-right party)
- Martin Sonneborn (Germany — The Party or The Party, a satirical party)
- Tatjana Ždanoka (Latvia — Latvijas Krievu savienība or the Latvian Russian Union, which is supported by ethnic Russians and other Russian-speaking minorities)